“ I believe there is no source of deception in the investigation of nature which can compare with a fixed belief that certain kinds of phenomena are impossible. ”
William James

Essays and Articles

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The essays and articles on this page are a selection of my published work from homeopathic books and journals, explorations of individual remedies from a perspective of having "proved" them (see Beginner's Guide or the Provings section for an explanation of this term), and a section mainly for students of homeopathy featuring some of my college assignments.

Most are available as both web pages and as pdf files for download (see panel left). The web pages are printable, but printing the pdf files is a more economic use of paper and includes the information in the pop-up windows which accompany some of the articles. Some articles are provided in professional translation (see below). Only the web page versions are visible to the online translation software used on this site. (See Home page.)

See the General Essays page for essays on related subjects which are less specific to homeopathy.

Baron Clemens Maria Franz von Bönninghausen (1785-1864). Image W Howard

Baron Clemens Maria Franz von Bönninghausen (1785-1864)


Published Articles

"Bringing Back the Baron"
UK Society of Homeopaths’ journal ‘The Homeopath’, April 2003, No. 89 (pp16-22).

Article on Baron Clemens Franz Maria von Bönninghausen, contemporary and student of Hahnemann; the features, development and use of his method of approaching case analysis and repertorisation; subsequent perceptions of the principles informing Bönninghausen’s technique; the restructuring of Roger van Zandvoort’s Repertorium Universale to make the use of Bönninghausen’s techniques possible in a modern repertory; interview with Roger van Zandvoort. (This article was written when the project title for the new repertory was Repertorium Universalis, rather than Repertorium Universale, so it’s referred to as that throughout.)

(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (144kb)

em português (pdf icon) Clique aqui para copiar o pdf desse artigo (148kb)

Note: In this article you'll find some references to Hahnemann working in close colloboration with Bönninghausen in the development of the Therapeutic Pocketbook. In particular, to Hahnemann testing a limited version of the Therapeutic Pocketbook for a period of around 2 years before making his comment about it being "excellent and eminently desirable". At the time I wrote the article, this information was accepted in good faith from one of my sources. Several people who have studied the original correspondence between the two men, and Hahnemann's case books over that period, subsequently questioned these assertions because they had found no concrete evidence for them. The source of the information then confirmed this was more a matter of personal opinion than established fact.

In summary, Hahnemann's opinion about the work is a matter of record. His own personal testing of it, and the close collaboration between the two men in its development, is speculation.

REPERTORIUM UNIVERSALE – An Introduction and Guide
The Introduction and Guide to Roger van Zandvoort's Repertorium Universale. Co-written with Roger.

The structure of most modern repertories is based predominantly on the work of J T Kent. The Repertorium Universale moves away from Kent’s structure, so its Introduction and Guide goes back to the foundations of repertory development to set the context for its evolution. The in-depth guide explains:

  • The repertory. What is a repertory? History of repertory development. Differences in approach.
  • The structure of the repertories. Kent. Bönninghausen. Complete Repertory.
  • Where the changes have been made to create the Repertorium Universale. Details of the new structure. Where to find rubrics. Cross-referencing. Number of remedies and rubrics.
  • Repertory gradings. Revision of the grading system.
  • Rationale for the changes. In structure. In gradings.
  • Case examples. Demonstrating the logic of the Repertorium Universale. Using Bönninghausen’s technique.
  • When to use the different methods.

(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (530kb)

em português Clique aqui para ler a Guia para o Repertorium Universale

This Introduction and Guide, and much more besides, can be found on Roger van Zandvoort's website.

Homœopathic Links

"COMPLETELY UNIVERSAL – An Introduction to the Repertorium Universale"
Homœopathic Links, Winter 2004, Vol 17 (4) (pp222-223)

Article providing a considerably briefer and simpler introduction to Roger van Zandvoort's new repertory, for those who prefer not to go into quite as much detail as the full introduction above.

(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (139kb)

Click on the image to link to Homœopathic Links' website.


Apple anaphylaxis

"APPLE ANAPHYLAXIS: a case of Borax"
The Homeopath, Summer 2008, 27:1 (p19)

The case of an allergy to apples in a young child, which progressed to anaphylaxis, cured by Borax. The case shows that the remedy's signatures were evident in pregnancy as well as infancy.

Also republished by the homeopathic online journal Hpathy, April 16 2010.

(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (892KB)


Advanced Guide for Professional Homeopaths by Luc De Schepper

REVIEW: Advanced Guide for Professional Homeopaths by Luc De Schepper
The Homeopath, Winter 2008, 27:3 (p107)

A review of De Schepper's latest work which creates a bridge between his earlier works – Hahnemann Revisited and Achieving and Maintaining the Simillimum – and his next book, Beyond Jung: Delusions, Dreams and Homeopathy.

(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (192KB)


Through the Looking Glass and What Alice Found There, Lewis Carroll, 1872. Image W Howard

Proving Articles

Over the last few years I've taken part in several provings. The following articles are based on these experiences.

"Through the Looking-Glass"
A symbolic perspective on the remedy Lilium tigrinum. This article describes the patterns and meaning I perceived in the remedy by weaving together the threads of the symptoms of the proving with the insights that prompted me to make sense of it, existing materia medica, and similar understandings I subsequently discovered elsewhere. It’s an interpretation of the remedy, as well as an account of some of the symptoms it produced. It’s assumed readers have some familiarity with Jung's concept of the individuation process and his perspective on symbolism, as well as the energetic anatomy of the body as described in Eastern traditions (kundalini and the chakras).

(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (151kb)

Cinchona officinalis

"Bulldosing the China Shop"
An exploration of the remedy China (Cinchona) officinalis and its role in the birth of homeopathy. An examination of available evidence of Hahnemann's general state and thought patterns around the time he first started to lay the foundations of homeopathy in the context of the remedy. The implications for some of the assumptions made about his genius, about genius in general, and about Hahnemann's distinction between the "reason-gifted mind" and the "unintelligent" vital force. An examination of the nature of provings and how they can contribute to our understanding of the world.

(page icon) Webpage version

Erythrinus erythrinus. © Liliane Moeremans

"Tails from a Red Fish"
An account of the experience of proving the little-known remedy Erythrinus, a primitve South American freshwater fish of the family Erythrinidae, the principal characteristics of its symptom picture, and a philosophical exploration of the questions and issues it raised.

This is a selective and subjective study of the main fetaures of the proving of Burnett's remedy Erythrinus from one prover's perspective. Download full details of the proving, materia medica and repertory from Joy Lucas, the proving coordinator.

(page icon) Webpage version


The Edinburgh College of Homeopathy logo. Image W Howard


This section is mainly for students. When I was studying homeopathy at college (1994-1998) we were encouraged to exchange returned assignments in order to benefit from each other's perspectives on the subject. The following are offered in that spirit. They're essays written for specific assignments and although there might be additional insights I would add now, they're presented here as I wrote them originally. All achieved a reasonable mark (A or higher).

Philosophy: Constitution
Assignment: "We frequently speak of constitution and of constitutional remedies. Yet, when we ask ourselves what constitution actually is we find we are at a loss for an answer. A definition like Bauer's 'the sum total of an individual's characteristics as they are potentially determined at the moment of fertilisation' means really very little because it means too much and is too general. If every characteristic is looked upon as constitutional, we still lack a yardstick to measure what represents the differentiating elements between constitutional and non-constitutional factors." (Edward Whitmont)
In your reading of Hahnemann, Kent, Whitmont, Vithoulkas, Ortega, Sankaran and any other homeopathic or non-homeopathic sources you consider to be relevant, discuss the different ideas about 'Constitution' and arrive at a well-argued conclusion which goes some way to provide the 'yardstick' that Whitmont mourns the lack of. (June 1997)
(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (151kb)

Philosophy: Addiction
Assignment: Describe the problems suffered by people with addictions, and their treatment by the homeopath with reference to their susceptibility. (March 1997)
(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (119kb)

Human Science: Candida albicans
Assignment: Vaginal thrush is one of the most frequently encountered problems involving the female reproductive tract. It is caused by the yeast Candida albicans. Discuss the effects of Candida infection on the human organism, why or whether it may be considered an aspect of sycotic pathology, and suggest approaches for its control and eradication. (Dec 1997)
(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (140kb)

Human Science: Enuresis
Assignment: Look at possible medical causes for enuresis and know about investigations and possible orthodox treatment involved.
Look at 6-8 remedies with particular association with this condition. (Nov 1997)
(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (162kb)

Repertory: Rubric differentiation
Assignment: Differentiate between the rubrics 'Euphoria', 'Ecstasy' and 'Exhilaration'. (April 1998)
(page icon) Webpage version
(pdf icon) download pdf (133kb)

Materia Medica: Remedy differentiation
Assignment: Differentiate between Aethusa, Carcinosin, Natrum muriaticum and Phosphorus in the rubric MIND, Love, animals, for (Jan 1998)
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(pdf icon) download pdf (137kb)


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